Wow first Ms. Roche’s class starts Class Xo2University and not a week later Ms. Seminara is starting her own blog with her studen’ts. Click on the painting by Picaso to visit The Student’s Studio, ( the name was voted on and chosen by the students).
BIRMINGHAM, Ala., Jan. 28 — More times than he remembers, La’Markus Cook has traveled south on Interstate 65 from Nashville, where he attends American Baptist College, to his home outside Montgomery, Ala. But never, he said, as he did this weekend.
Air brakes hissing and motors rumbling, four buses retraced segments of the 1961 Freedom Rides on Saturday and Sunday, giving students aboard a front-seat view of a pivotal moment in civil rights history. On the rides 46 years ago, activists armed with only their convictions braved white mobs to defy segregation of interstate bus travel.
There have been many previous expeditions to locations where riders were beaten, bloodied and jailed, but this weekend’s was probably the largest and most ambitious attempt to keep the history alive.
“I don’t know that any students have ever had this opportunity before,” said Raymond Arsenault, the author of the 2006 book “Freedom Riders,” considered an authoritative history.
About 100 students from Vanderbilt University, Tennessee State University, Fisk University and American Baptist College accompanied veterans of the civil rights movement, some of whom came close to death in the bloody confrontations over interstate travel in the South.
The buses served as rolling classrooms, leaving Nashville early Saturday for Montgomery and arriving in Birmingham on Saturday evening. The students, along with faculty members, historians and others, returned to Nashville on Sunday.
Along the route, speakers rotated among buses to describe their experiences and answer questions. Several came from the “Nashville movement” of brash activists, many affiliated with the same colleges and universities as the students.
Among them were Representative John Lewis, Democrat of Georgia, who was beaten and jailed on the rides; John Seigenthaler, an aide to Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy during the crisis; James Lawson and C. T. Vivian, ministers who advised many of the students; and Diane Nash, who in the early 1960s led sit-in movements to desegregate lunch counters in Nashville and became one of the founders of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.
“Maybe, just maybe,” Mr. Lewis said, “this trip will help renew and inspire and encourage people to take a page from the past and apply it to your own life.”
Though the Supreme Court had ruled that Jim Crow segregation in interstate travel was unconstitutional, the Justice Department had little appetite for enforcement. In 1947, an interracial “Journey of Reconciliation” in the upper South had done little to break travel segregation, Mr. Arsenault wrote.
In 1961, the Congress of Racial Equality decided to challenge travel segregation again with nonviolent civil disobedience. When one group of interracial passengers reached Anniston, Ala., a Ku Klux Klan-organized mob firebombed the bus and beat the passengers. Passengers on another bus were badly beaten when they reached Birmingham.
Attorney General Kennedy intervened. The riders, some badly hurt, wanted to press on, but the trip was scuttled and the riders flew instead to New Orleans.
Nashville activists pledged to continue. Mr. Seigenthaler pleaded with the students, but Ms. Nash said riders had signed their wills and were prepared to die if necessary.
In Montgomery, a mob met the new wave of riders, severely beating Mr. Lewis and another rider, Jim Zwerg. In the melee, Mr. Seigenthaler was clubbed and left unconscious.
The crisis mounted with riders’ imprisonment in Mississippi. Eventually, more than 400 riders would board segregated buses and trains, taxing courts throughout the South. Then, in September, the Interstate Commerce Commission prohibited all discrimination in interstate busing.
Sherrae M. Hayes, a 20-year-old junior at Tennessee State, said the trip gave the lesson new meaning. “You can definitely learn it from a textbook,” Ms. Hayes said, “but I don’t think it means half as much, or a quarter as much, as being there.”
Outside Montgomery’s old Trailways station on Saturday, riders craned to see the building’s facade. A few minutes later, as rain pattered on the roof of the bus, Mr. Zwerg, 67, described the eerie quiet before the crowd set upon him 46 years ago. “I knew whether I lived or died,” he said, “it was going to be all right.”
Well things are certainly busy. Our blog has hit 3000 mark and we are at the halfway mark for the school year.
Time to take stock and reflect on what you have learned, what you have created and in general how your year is going.
Have you reached your goals? Are you working towards your goals? What was some of your favorite things from the first half of the year?
Also time to plan for the next half of the year. What are some of the things you want to learn, create, accomplish in the next half of the year? Go ahead set some goals for your self and put them down in black and white for the world to see right here.
I will be responding to this post myself, and and I invite all 373r staff to as well.
Well Happy Half year to everyone and good luck for the next half.
Click HERE to participate in the school goals poll
There is a new blog in town and it is looking better all time. Click on the blogger below to visit this excellent new blog. Great stuff. Blog on Miss Roche’s guys!!!
Supreme court is the highest court of the land and has the ultimate power to determine the issues related to constitutional subjects, state disputes, cases in which federal or central government is a party etc are decided. Supreme court judges are appointed by the head of the state (president).
The Constitution established the Supreme Court as the highest court in the United States.
One of the Supreme Courts most important responsibilities is to decide cases that raise questions of constitutional interpretation. The Court decides if a law or government action violates our founding document of law the Constitution. This is known as judicial review and enables the Court to strike down both federal and state laws when they conflict with the Constitution. Since the Supreme Court stands as the ultimate authority in constitutional interpretation, its decisions can be changed only by another Supreme Court decision or by a constitutional amendment.
Judicial review puts the Supreme Court in an important role in the American political system, making it the referee in disputes among various branches of the Federal, as well as state governments, and as the ultimate authority for many of the most important issues in the country. For example, in 1954, the Court banned racial segregation in public schools in Brown v. Board of Education. The ruling started a long process of desegregating schools and other institutions.
After reading answer the following questions.
1. What is the highest court in the land?
2.What document does the court base it’s decision on?
3. How can the court’s decision be overturned?
4. What was the name of the famous case that desegregated schools?
In the book Hatchet, Brian uses fire to survive life in the Canadian Wilderness. How does Brian Use fire? How does he make fire? Why is fire necessary to survival in the wilderness?
Gee it is finally cold around here (New York City) the way it is supposed to be in January. We may even get some snow. Here in NYC it is has been a very warm winter and there has been a lot of discussion of global warming.
In the mean while up in the Canadian Artic they are having their own problem with global warming. A massive ice shelf has broken off an island in the Canadian Arctic and could cause chaos when it starts floating away, scientists have warned.
If the ice starts floating into areas where ships go, it could cause big problems.
It’s thought to be the largest ice break for 25 years.
The ice broke off back in August 2005 but has only just been spotted.
At the moment, the ice shelf can’t do much damage, as the Arctic is frozen up for the winter, the scientists say. But once the sea ice melts next summer, the block of ice could start moving about and causing damage.
We have been studying Civil rights through film, and we have seen how badly African- Americans were treated in the south and the brave people who fought to change things, often giving their lives to do so. So today we will back track back a little and take a look at some of the history and events that created a segregated south.
Jim Crow was not a person, yet affected the lives of millions of people. Named after a popular 19th-century song that stereotyped African Americans, “Jim Crow” came to personify the system of government policy of racial oppression and segregation in the United States.
Click on the picture to visit PBS’s website on Jim Crow.